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  • Anmol Trehin

Commercial Disputes In Quebec: How to Choose Between Mediation, Arbitration or Litigation

In the fast-paced world of business, disputes are an unfortunate reality. Whether stemming from contractual breaches, partnership frictions, intellectual property clashes, or other issues, resolving these disputes effectively is crucial for maintaining business relationships and minimizing potential disruptions. Businesses have several avenues for resolving disputes, each with its advantages and considerations.

In this blog, we will explore the three primary methods for resolving business disputes in Quebec: mediation, arbitration, and litigation. By understanding the nuances of each approach, you can make informed decisions when faced with a dispute and choose the path that best aligns with your business goals.

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What is the Difference Between Mediation, Arbitration, and Litigation?

Mediation in Quebec is a process where conflicting parties collaborate with a neutral mediator to find their resolution. It's an alternative to going to court, where the mediator facilitates communication and exploration of solutions, guided by Quebec's civil law system and regulations.

Arbitration is a process to resolve disputes outside of court, where parties present their arguments and evidence to a neutral arbitrator or panel. The arbitrator makes a binding decision, similar to a court judgment. It's an alternative to litigation often chosen for its efficiency and flexibility.

Litigation is the legal process of resolving disputes through courts. Parties present their cases, evidence, and arguments before a judge or jury, leading to a formal decision. It's a structured procedure used when other methods fail, but it can be time-consuming and costly. Furthermore, following the 2016 reform of the Code of Civil Procedure of Quebec, parties must consider private prevention and resolution processes before going to court [1]. Additionally, when parties do go to court they must indicate the consideration given to alternative dispute resolution processes in their case protocol [2].

In short, mediation in Quebec involves a neutral mediator assisting parties to reach a voluntary agreement; arbitration entails a neutral arbitrator making a binding decision after evaluating evidence; litigation refers to disputing parties presenting their cases before a court for a judgment.

Understanding Mediation for Business Disputes in Quebec

Mediation offers a collaborative approach to dispute resolution. In this process, a neutral third party, the mediator, assists the parties in identifying common ground and working towards a mutually acceptable solution. Mediation encourages open communication and fosters creative problem-solving. It is particularly beneficial when parties want to preserve their ongoing business relationships or seek a more expedient and cost-effective resolution.

Mediation in Quebec offers several advantages, including a confidential and non-adversarial setting that encourages open communication. Parties maintain control over the resolution process, and it often proves quicker and more cost-effective than litigation. Mediation also supports the preservation of business relationships, a critical consideration. However, it's essential to note that the mediator's role is to facilitate discussions, not impose decisions, which might not be suitable for disputes with significant power imbalances or intricate legal complexities.

Exploring Arbitration as a Business Dispute Resolution Option

Arbitration involves presenting the dispute before one or more neutral arbitrators who render a binding decision. It is a private alternative to litigation and can be tailored to the parties' preferences. Arbitration is particularly advantageous for businesses seeking a speedier resolution without the formalities and potential delays associated with court proceedings.

Arbitration offers distinct advantages, notably its flexible and adaptable process. The proceedings are private, ensuring confidentiality. Compared to litigation, arbitration often leads to faster resolutions. Parties have the advantage of selecting arbitrators specialized in pertinent areas. However, it's important to acknowledge certain considerations, such as the constrained rights of appeal. While formalities can resemble court procedures, arbitration costs may fluctuate based on the complexity of the matter at hand.

Navigating Business Disputes Through Litigation

Litigation involves taking the dispute to court, where a judge renders a legally binding decision based on the presented evidence and arguments. Litigation is often the chosen path when parties cannot reach an agreement through negotiation or mediation. While it may be more time-consuming and costly, litigation provides a structured framework for dispute resolution.

Litigation presents several advantages, including a formalized legal process with well-defined procedures. It offers access to legal remedies and court-issued judgments, ensuring a binding and enforceable decision. Litigation is particularly suitable for intricate disputes necessitating legal interpretation. However, it's crucial to consider potential drawbacks, such as the potentially lengthy and costly nature of the process. Court proceedings are public, which could impact privacy, and parties might experience a loss of control over the outcome due to the court's decision-making authority. Furthermore, in Quebec, parties must demonstrate they considered alternative dispute resolution processes before going to court.

Should You Include Mandatory Dispute Resolution Clauses in Your Agreements?

Dispute resolution clauses in business agreements are contractual provisions that define the methods and procedures parties will follow to handle disputes that may arise during the course of their business relationship. These clauses are crucial components of business agreements as they help manage potential conflicts in a structured and efficient manner. Dispute resolution clauses can encompass various methods, including negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and litigation, and they outline the steps parties must take before resorting to legal action. These clauses may also specify the choice of jurisdiction, applicable law, location of proceedings, and language. By including dispute resolution clauses in business agreements, parties establish a clear roadmap for addressing disputes, promoting transparency, predictability, and often avoiding the complexities and costs associated with prolonged litigation.


When faced with a business dispute in Quebec, choosing the right resolution method is a critical decision that can impact the outcome and the future of your business relationships. Mediation, arbitration, and litigation each offer unique benefits and considerations. Your choice will depend on factors such as the nature of the dispute, the desired level of control, the importance of confidentiality, and the overall timeline. Seeking legal counsel from professionals who can provide invaluable guidance to help you navigate these options and make the best choice for your business. Remember, no matter the path you choose, the goal is to find a resolution that aligns with your business objectives and allows you to move forward with confidence. If you need assistance in understanding these options or crafting effective dispute resolution clauses, feel free to reach out to our law firm in Montreal for insights and support.

This blog post is not legal advice and is for general informational purposes only. Always speak with a lawyer before acting on any of the information contained herein.


[1] Article 1 para 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure, CQLR c C-25.01

[2] Article 148 of the Code of Civil Procedure, CQLR c C-25.01


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